Hepatitis B is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The Hepatitis B virus is transmitted primarily through contact with blood or blood-derived fluids, often by unprotected sexual activity. Hepatitis B can be easily transmitted through blood transfusions and through medical, dental or other exposure to contaminated needles (e.g. IV drug use, acupuncture, tattooing, etc). Chronic Hepatitis B infection can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Adult travelers are urged to receive a full course of injections (3) before departure.